Music and the brain of a child
According to numerous studies, the use of music as an additional sensory flow greatly improves the speech function in children of preschool age.
Any activity, in particular, intellectual, is provided by the functional work of the brain related to the perception and processing of information.One of the paradoxes of our time is that the functionality of the human body has remained unchanged since ancient times, and it is necessary to know and be able to be incommensurably more than before. This explains the tendency towards earlier intensive education that has emerged in modern pedagogy – the methods of early development are widely used in teaching practice; at an earlier age than before school begins.
And, indeed, in the opinion of many physiologists, psychologists, teachers (L.S. Vygotsky, G. Doman, N.А.Zaytsev, M.Ibuka, A.N. Leontyev, G.Yu.Malyarenko, R.S.Nemov , B.P. Nikitin, J.Piaget, and others.) It is the age of up to seven years that is the period of the formation of the personality of the child and his character; the period when the intellectual base is laid, on the basis of which the mental activity of a person will be developed in the future; a period of active growth and development of the brain and interneuron connections.
The formation of brain structures and interneuronal connections is due to the effect on the system of the human sense organs of various sensory currents, because the child’s development occurs not only according to the genetic program. AV Zaporozhets emphasized that the social environment is not just the necessary conditions, but the real source of the child’s development. This idea is also the basis of modern theories of early intellectual development of a person (G. Doman, M. Ibuka, Sh. Suzuki, M. Montessori, M. Lazarev, N. Zaitsev and others).
According to some scientists, a human being, developing from the moment of birth in the conditions of complete absence of signals from the outside world (sensory influx), would be completely devoid of mental functions (H. Delgado). Sensory influx has an optimal effect when it falls into sensitive periods in the development of mental functions, i.e. periods of particular sensitivity of certain functions to external influences.
The nervous system of a child of preschool age is extremely plastic and sensitive to external influences (DA Farber). It is this age that is most favorable for the improvement of the activity of the sense organs, the accumulation of ideas about the surrounding world (L.A. Venger, R.S.Nemov and others).
According to numerous studies, the use of music as an additional sensory flow greatly improves speech functions in preschool children (C.Hoskins 1988), improves memorization of key phrases and facilitates the assimilation of information by preschool children (C.W.Park, S.M.Yong 1986).
Under the influence of music there is an improvement in short-term verbal memory, colors, names of geometric shapes, numbers, pictures are better remembered (S.Rosenberg 1993, M.Spighhiger 1995). According to N.N. Bragina, T.А.Dobrokhotova and L.P. Novitskaya, music contributes to the relief of visual perception. It is confirmed that music reduces psycho-emotional stress, contributes to focusing attention, as well as engaging children in activities, which helps them achieve the goal of mastering various skills (D.L.Nelson, A.A.Darrow, K.Aldridge).
Recently, a huge number of pre-school children’s institutions, gymnasiums, pro-gymnasiums, lyceums, etc., have appeared, in which young children are taught to read, write, and math. But, as a rule, they teach there using the technology of school education. Sitting at the desks, writing in the lists, homework. Frequently, the psychophysiological features of a given age are not taken into account: the leading type of activity is a game, mainly visual-figurative thinking, instability of mental processes, increased emotionality, involuntary attention — children remember only the information that causes immediate interest, insufficient formation of the musculoskeletal system.
Due to the increase in training loads, problems of a valeological nature arise – stresses, an increased state of anxiety, fatigue, deterioration of children’s health in general. According to psychophysiologists (TMMaryutina, O.Yu.Ermolaev, ALSyrotyuk), during the period of brain formation (up to 7-9 years) the contribution of the right hemisphere to the maintenance of psychological functioning exceeds the contribution of the left hemisphere, the cognitive activity of children in age up to 7 years has a direct, holistic and imaginative character.
But, unfortunately, teaching methods that prevail in the school system and are often transferred to the learning process of preschoolers are mainly focused on left-hemispheric perception. This entails a problem of motivation – children lose their natural interest in learning at an early age and do not acquire it at school. All these problems not only inevitably reduce the effectiveness of educational processes, but also adversely affect the physical and mental health of children.
Thus, modern life requires such pedagogical technologies, which should, on the one hand, provide children with high-quality deep knowledge, create an intellectual base for further education, and on the other hand, focus on the physical, mental, spiritual health of the child and take into account the physiological characteristics of each age .
In this regard, the possibilities of musical art are of particular interest. Since ancient times, science has accumulated a huge amount of information about it. There are three main directions of musical influence on the human body: 1. on the physical body 2. on the spiritual essence of man 3. on the intellect.