Influence of the tempo-rhythmic structure of music on the psycho-physiological state of a person
Musical culture in its deepest meaning has long gone beyond the circle of music lovers in the modern world. The widespread use of music in order to influence the human condition has now become almost total. The property of music to influence the state of a person is used now in therapy sessions, advertising, cinema, etc.
The direction of music therapy and music suggestion, which is not sufficiently studied by modern psychological science, brings, among other things, unexpected results of using music to influence the state of consciousness, especially on a massive scale.The lack of recommendations based on scientific research allows choosing the latter-day musical “Kashpirovsky” and “Chumak” amateurish approach, in which authoritarianism is positioned, implying that any product of this person’s activity has a designated property, regardless of compliance with the production technology. That emasculates the very idea of the correct use of music in the processes of positivity, therapy, rehabilitation and prevention of stressful, depressive and pathological mental tendencies.
At the moment, the study of the influence of music as a separate area is highlighted in “music therapy”. Here we study the connection between the changes in the course of the disease and the music used during the treatment period. At the same time, the emphasis is placed not so much on music as the “complex multi-level matrix” (Y. Ryzhov), but on the vibrations of sound vibrations. Often it is the sound vibrations that indicate the numerical values of the sound frequencies that resonate with a specific part of the brain. For example, “a low beta rhythm with a frequency of 15 Hz intensifies the normal state of waking consciousness. A high beta rhythm with a frequency of 30 Hz causes a condition similar to that which occurs after cocaine use. The alpha rhythm frequency of 10.5 Hz causes a state of deep relaxation.
For a number of preliminary data in this state, the brain produces a large number of neuro-neptics that increase immunity. Theta rhythm with a frequency of 7.5 Hz contributes to the emergence of a state characteristic of deep meditation. With a low theta rhythm with a frequency of 4 Hz, an experience sometimes arises that has received the name “travel outside the body” in literature. At frequencies below 4 Hz, there is a strong desire to fall asleep, the difficulty of maintaining a waking consciousness ”(A. Goncharov, 2003).
Almost all developments in the field of musical influence are carried out by doctors or, at best, by psychologists. But almost every work contains references to the results of hardware research, where the influence of individual sound frequencies or their combination is measured, which is not music by definition. In Dahl’s dictionary “MUSIC is the art of a harmonious and harmonious combination of sounds, both consecutive (melody, tune, voice), and joint (harmony, accord, consonance), and art is in action.”
Hence the name of the direction as “music therapy” is hasty and unreasonable, although many therapists use it in their classical formulation in their sessions of treatment and rehabilitation, but prefer to talk about the positive influence of the sounds of a violin or organ.
In our opinion, the influence of music on the human condition must be studied taking into account all aspects of the musical structure. In the structure of a musical work, we can highlight the following:
– Body Movement
– Emotional-dynamic aspect
– Reflexive-meditative aspect
– Suggestive-trans aspect
All aspects have a direct relationship with the components of the internal structure of music. The component-structural analysis of music makes it possible to single out the tempo-rhythmic, harmonic and melodic structure, which in turn also have properties to emphasize the nuances of changes in the psychophysical state. This allows us to observe changes in the psychophysical state of a person throughout the sound of the entire musical work. The impact of music, we consider in this case only as the connection of musical sound with the psychophysical reaction of a person.
The bodily-motor aspect of the influence of music is the oldest in the chronology of the appearance of elements of the musical structure. This is due to the simplicity of the reproduction of the idea – it is enough to knock a stick on a rotting log from inside, and a tempo-rhythmic pattern is already possible. The ancient people made such a discovery and used the results to accompany the rituals of initiation into the warriors, preparing for the hunt, which meant the active inclusion of the bodily-motor component.
We associate it with the tempo-rhythmic component of a piece of music. In music theory, EMP is the speed of a piece of music. That is, the same work can be performed at a different pace. Here, the state change depends on the speed of perception of music by a specific person. In our opinion, the discrepancy between the speed of music reproduction and the author’s intention removes a significant part of the influence of a musical work. For example, if Beethoven’s Moonlight Sonata is lost at a dance pace, then it will already lose its romance and depth, which for several centuries immerses the listener into a special state of consciousness. So, it is very important to impose all the structures of music at the appropriate, correct pace. The choice of pace should be determined by the objectives of the author.
The pace of the march, about 90 – 100 beats per minute. The natural body reaction in the experimental groups, at concerts with the sound of the march was an arbitrary imitation of marching “on the spot”. But if, in the case of a concert, the listeners could have “worked out” the stereotype of music perception, then it must be said that, in general, the march was created with the goal of provoking such a reaction among those who heard it. Naturally originating from the tradition of collective marching, the march awakens this desire quite naturally.
A more subtle organization of motor activity in music create rhythmic patterns. Rhythm is the so-called relationship of the durations of the sounds in their sequence. Combining in certain sequences, the duration of the sounds form a rhythmic group (figure) of which consists of a rhythmic pattern.
Tempo-rhythm creates its own special field of influence on the psycho-physical reactions of a person. The most common reaction of a person in the field of tempo-rhythmic musical structure is dance. At youth discos, many dance compositions begin with the sounds of drummers (drums), which immediately denotes the tempo, on which the rhythmic pattern is gradually superimposed.
The youth starts the dance right away, because their dance doesn’t need anything else, an emotionally moving “release” will occur even if the drums sound lonely throughout the composition without harmonic-melodic support. However, African tribes and the surviving tribes of northern nations, as well as Hindus, in their famous ragas successfully use the properties of various tempo-rhythmic combinations performed exclusively on drums.
Drumbeat is the best illustration of the direct connection of a person’s state with the tempo-rhythmic structure of music. During the experiments, which were conducted by us in groups of volunteers (30–120 people), a discovery was made that the monophonic sound of the drum, in the form of beating a simple rhythm, can awaken the body-motor aspect of a person’s reaction (to make the body dance — the body in started “) when the pace reaches or exceeds the speed of the heartbeat (130-140 beats per minute).
At the same time, a slower pace, which is 2–3 times slower than that of the heart, is capable of introducing a person into a state of trance. This property is used by the shamans to introduce people who participate in shamanic rituals into such states.
One of the main elements of a holotropic session is prompting music (V. Kozlov). Sessions conducted to the music of the drums, took place mainly with increased motor activity. Even those of the “holonavtov” who were passive in their physical manifestations, said that they imagined themselves as shamans or Indian deities (depending on the sound of the music). But they did not allow themselves to be physically involved in a dance reproduced in their consciousness due to various internal prohibitions, which at that time were not yet sufficiently developed. That is, the degree of internal liberation determines the ratio of internal (emotionally-shaped) and external (active motor) reactions to the sound of drums in incendiary rhythms.